Any trip to the supermarket or watching TV ads in the last week or so should have left you with one clear 和 resounding message – Valentine’s Day is just around the corner. 如果你能看透内心, 丘比特画像, 泰迪熊, 巧克力, 等等, 你会感激这个机会让U2电竞体育的真爱, 或者U2电竞体育现在的爱, or our hoped-to-be loves how we feel about them is not just big business, 但它是U2电竞体育社会和生活的重要组成部分.
为什么呢? 为什么这一天如此特别? Well I’m going to take an evolutionary approach to explain this phenomenon in this blog, 并强调为什么它是基于U2电竞体育本性中更深层次的一面.
To start with, a good question to ask is do other species have something similar? 现在, I don’t mean do they have a special day where they send each other cards 和 crack open a nice bottle of wine, 但U2电竞体育能不能看看其他动物来帮助理解情人节呢? 这里有两个例子:
Bowerbirds, found in Papua New Guinea 和 Australia, are a great place to start. 雄性园丁鸟用树枝建造巨大而美妙的房子, 叶子, berries 和 any other materials they can find (including plastic straws from nearby fast food restaurants), very carefully making sure that they are beautifully decorated 和 impressive. 然后他们就坐在他们旁边，等着. Female bowerbirds will then pass by each house 和 inspecting each one, 如果他们喜欢他们所看到的, 它们会和建造它的鸟交配.
Peacocks have very recognisable 和 fabulously large 和 colourful tails that are in fact very difficult 和 dangerous to own. 这是因为它们需要大量的能量来生长和维持, 由于它们的体型和重量，它们的飞行和移动都很困难, 这意味着主人更有可能被捕食者抓住. 如果这对他们的生存有害，那他们为什么要吃呢? 答案是它对繁殖很有帮助, 就像雌孔雀喜欢大尾巴的孔雀一样, simply because it shows off that the owner of that tail has managed to survive despite the large tail, 这一定意味着它们是高质量的标本!
这两个例子都涉及到所谓的昂贵信号, 自然界中哪些信号的产生成本很高, 以此来炫耀信号者是如何负担得起成本的. So, the bowerbird is paying a big cost in terms of effort 和 time 和 energy to build their magnificent houses, 和 the peacocks is paying a big cost in terms of physically growing their elaborate tails. 追溯到人类和他们的情人节, we can see other costly signals being spent such as expensive engagement rings (with a diamond that should, 作为一个粗略的指南, 相当于一个月的工资!)、奢华晚餐或浪漫旅行. 这些都显示了多少钱, 就金钱而言, 为了给U2电竞体育的另一半留下深刻印象，U2电竞体育准备付出代价, 和一些珠宝, restaurants 和 hotel owners know only too well 和 are happy to help with!
但花费并不总是钱, so gifts that are difficult to produce but inexpensive financially (such as writing a romantic poem or song) can also show a large cost being spent. 这也是相对的, so what might not be a cost for some people will be for others 和 work just as well, so a simple card 和 modest box of 巧克力 may be costly to some people 和 as a result will have the same desired effect. 记住，在情人节，心意才是最重要的!
So, Valentine’s Day traditions have clear similarities with mating in other animal species, 这表明它们在U2电竞体育的心理中根深蒂固吗. But one unavoidable fact about mating displays in the animal kingdom that needs to be noted is that in virtually every single case it is the male of the species who is doing the displaying, 而雌性在做选择. 为什么会这样?人类也是如此吗?
To answer that first question, we need to think about looking after our offspring. 在哺乳动物, 母亲在照顾孩子上投入更多, as they not only grow them over a long period time 和 give birth to them, 他们还在孩子出生后提供大量的照顾, 它们小时候所有的食物都是以牛奶的形式存在的. As a result of the fact that females invest far more in being a parent than males do, they need to make sure that this investment is wisely placed on good quality offspring. This is why females are overwhelmingly the ‘choosier’ sex in nature (as Charles Darwin realised) as they have more to lose than males. Males on the other h和 invest much less (和 in some species hardly anything at all), 所以不必挑剔, 他们只需要确保自己被选中. This is why it is the male Bowers who build big houses 和 peacocks who grow long tails, 因为它们需要给挑剔的雌性留下好印象.
很明显，人类的情况与此类似, as there is also a difference in the amount of investment in children from mothers 和 fathers. 这反映在情人节的行为中, 因为大多是男性购买订婚戒指, 支付昂贵的晚餐, 浪漫的旅行, 写浪漫的歌曲和诗歌, 法院和总体上试图用他们昂贵的展示给女人留下深刻印象.
但是,并不总是. 女性也会努力给别人留下深刻印象，并为此付出代价, 当谈到浪漫伴侣时，男人当然会很挑剔. 这是否表明U2电竞体育已经克服了自己的生物起源? 好吧,其实不是. 在养育子女方面，人类是一个奇怪的物种, as fathers invest a lot more in our species than others due to the fact that human babies require a lot (A LOT!)的照顾和支持，并由父母双方提供. This means men too need to be choosy when it comes to deciding where to put this investment, 和 therefore gifts 和 romantic gestures can work just as well for men as it can women.
整体, I think that looking at other species 和 evolutionary explanations around mating behaviour can really help us underst和 Valentine’s Day, but as with all cases when it comes to human nature we also need to look at what makes us unique. And that’s without even starting to look at how years of cultural influences 和 traditions have further shaped it. 无论如何,享受它!
博士丹尼尔·法拉利 是高级讲师吗 心理学学士学位 包括进化和人类行为模块. Daniel's main interests are main interests are in the empirical 和 theoretical application of evolutionary theory to explain human behaviour 和 psychological processes.
All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 和 do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the U2电竞体育平台 or any of its partners.