新妈妈出现精神问题并不罕见. 高达20%, 或者1 / 5, women will experience mental ill-health during pregnancy 和 in the year after childbirth (known as the postpartum period). The most common postpartum mental illnesses are anxiety, depression, or a combination of both. 考虑到物理的数量和规模，这也许并不令人惊讶, 伴随新生儿到来的心理和社会变化. What may be more surprising is that mental illness is the most common of all health problems affecting women during pregnancy 和 childbirth in the UK, 非常遗憾的是, 自杀是英国新妈妈死亡的主要原因之一.
Some women will experience a particularly severe form of postpartum mental illness called postpartum psychosis, 通常是在分娩后突然和很快开始的, 通常是在最初的几天或几周内. This is much rarer than postpartum depression, affecting around 1-2 of every 1000 new mothers (0.1-0.2%). The symptoms of postpartum psychosis are varied 和 changeable but usually include delusions (believing things that are not true), 幻觉(看到或听到不存在的东西), 极度兴奋或易怒的情绪, 感到困惑和困惑, unusual out-of-character behaviour such as being excessively talkative 和 over-familiar with other people.
产后精神病是一种医疗急症, 哪一个, 在大多数情况下, 需要住院接受专科护理和治疗. 这是很可怕的, 当有成员患有精神疾病时，整个家庭都会感到震惊和痛苦, this is elevated during the period after childbirth when expectations on new mothers are often high. EastEnders viewers may remember that Stacey Slater experienced postpartum psychosis after the birth of her baby, 亚瑟, 几年前. The producers ensured a sensitive 和 accurate portrayal of postpartum psychosis by seeking input from experts, 尤其是那些有过患病经历的女性.
For many years my research group has been investigating the causes 和 triggers of a serious mood disorder called bipolar disorder. U2电竞体育招募了世界上最大的双相情感障碍患者样本. 到目前为止，来自英国各地的超过7000人参与了U2电竞体育的研究, 并继续帮助U2电竞体育的研究. We have shown that women who have bipolar disorder are at much higher risk of postpartum psychosis than women in the general population. One in five women with bipolar disorder who had given birth in our sample experienced postpartum psychosis, 或者说20%比0大100倍.女性占总人口的2%. We have also shown that women who have bipolar disorder are especially at risk of postpartum psychosis after having their first baby, if they have previously had postpartum psychosis 和 if they have a close biological relative who has had postpartum psychosis.
重要的是, 一些已知的导致产后抑郁症的风险因素, 比如有个人童年创伤史的女性, 在U2电竞体育的样本中是否与产后精神病风险增加相关, showing that the causes of postpartum depression 和 postpartum psychosis are not the same.
While we have made some progress with underst和ing the causes of postpartum psychosis there is much still to learn about this complex illness 哪一个 is under-researched. 例如, many women with bipolar disorder who are trying to become pregnant or are pregnant choose to stop taking their bipolar disorder medication because they are concerned about possible harms to their foetus. It is possible that coming off medication might contribute to the high rate of postpartum psychosis in women who have bipolar disorder. 为了解决这个问题和其他问题, we are currently undertaking the largest 和 one of the first ever follow-up studies of pregnant women who have bipolar disorder. 到目前为止，已经有超过130名女性加入了U2电竞体育的研究, 让U2电竞体育在她们怀孕早期采访她们, 同样是在分娩前和婴儿出生后3个月.
We are indebted to the women who are helping us with our research by allowing us access to their lives at what is already a complicated 和 challenging time for many of them 和 their families.
U2电竞体育的研究结果还处于非常早期的阶段, U2电竞体育需要更多的女性加入这项研究，因为每个女性的经历都是独特的, but our emerging findings suggest that having an episode of mental ill-health during pregnancy 和 having a particular type of bipolar disorder, 叫做双相I型障碍, 是否会增加患产后精神病的风险. Our data also suggest that having postpartum psychosis is not associated with lack of emotional support from the woman’s partner 和 family.
The reason we are working to underst和 more about the causes of postpartum psychosis is so that women, their families 和 clinical teams can have accurate information based on high-quality research. Our findings will inform the difficult decisions that women who have bipolar disorder have to make about whether or not to start, 继续, 或者在怀孕期间更换药物, will help women who are at particularly high risk of postpartum psychosis to be identified early 和 given the extra support 和 care they may need to ensure the best possible outcomes for them 和 their babies.
Women 和 their partners can often feel guilty 和 blame themselves when postpartum mental illness happens, 但U2电竞体育的研究表明，这是错误的. Postpartum psychosis is not caused by something the woman 和 her partner have or have not done or thought. The primary factors involved in whether or not a new mother experiences postpartum psychosis are biological, 包括基因组成. We therefore hope that our research can also help to reduce feelings of guilt 和 shame 和 encourage new mothers who are concerned about their mental health to talk to a health professional without delay.
I would like to thank all our research participants without whose help 和 support our research could not happen, 和我的同事, 凯瑟琳·戈登·史密斯博士 和 艾米·佩里她在产后精神病研究的各个方面与我密切合作. 你可以在这里找到更多关于U2电竞体育的研究.
丽莎·琼斯教授 和 members of her research group teach 和 supervise research projects about mental illness on many courses at the U2电竞体育平台, 包括 心理学学士学位(荣誉), 助产学学士学位(荣誉), 护理学士学位(荣誉), 医师助理MSc, 护理学(荣誉理学士).